Monday, August 23, 2010

Study guides and online quizzes in Christology (interim curriculum)

Click hereThe articles on Christology from Jesus: A Biblical Defense of His Deity by Josh McDowell and Bart Larson are part of the interim curriculum. We have prepared these study guides which you can use in two ways: (1) Read the study guide first so you can have an overview of the article; and (2) After reading the article, try answering the study guide questions to test your comprehension. Online, interactive quizzes with automatic scoring are also available.

Index of study guides

  1. Appendix
  2. Jesus Christ Is God
  3. Jesus Christ Possesses the Names and Titles of God
  4. Jesus Christ Possesses the Attributes of God
  5. Jesus Christ Possesses the Authority of God
  6. God Became Man in Jesus Christ
  7. We Have the Witness of the Early Church
  8. What Are Some Common Objections to the Deity of Christ?
  9. Is Jesus Christ Your Lord?
  10. How the Authors Discovered New Life in Jesus Christ


How do the following religious systems view the deity of Christ?
  • Agnostic
  • Atheist
  • Bahai
  • Black Muslims
  • Buddhism
  • Children of God (Family Of Love)
  • Christian Science
  • Confucianism
  • Divine Light Mission
  • Eckankar
  • EST (Erhard Seminars Training)
  • Hare Krishna (ISKCON – International Society for Krishna Consciousness)
  • Hinduism
  • I-Ching
  • Islam
  • Jainism
  • Jehovah’s Witnesses
  • Judaism
  • Mormonism
  • New Age Movement
  • Radio Church of God
  • Reorganized Church of Later Day Saints
  • Scientology (Church of Scientology)
  • Shintoism
  • Sikhism
  • Spiritism
  • Theosophy
  • Transcendental Meditation (TM)
  • Unification Church
  • Unitarianism
  • Unity
  • The Way International
  • Zen Buddhism
  • Buddhism and Taoism
  • Zoroastrianism
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Jesus Christ Is God
  1. “To say that Jesus was ‘just’ a good moral man or a good teacher is out of the question.” Why?
  2. “The present authors believe God has revealed Himself in various ways, but each of them can be objectively tested by His two supreme revelations, the Bible and the person of Jesus.” How?
  3. What do 2 Timothy 3:16-17, Jude 3, Galatians 1:8, Revelation 22.19 and Deuteronomy 4:2 state about the Bible’s claims to be the final authority for determining matters of doctrine?
  4. What do Job 11:7, 42:2-6, Psalm 145:3, Isaiah 40:13, 55:8, 9 and Romans 8:33 state about the incomprehensibility of God?
  5. What do Hebrews 1: 1-3, John 14:8 and Colossians 1:15 say about God’s revelation of Himself in the person of Jesus?
  6. What are the issues if Christ was God in the form of a man?
  7. What do Isaiah 42:8, 48:8, Isaiah 45:5, 21-22, Jeremiah 10:6, 1 Corinthians 8:4-6, Deuteronomy 6:13-14 and Matthew 4:10 say about idolatry?
  8. What do the Scriptures teach about God?
  9. What does Robert Passantino say about the general and moral attributes of God?
  10. What do we mean (and do not mean) when we say that God is triune?
  11. How can we summarize biblical doctrine of the Trinity?
  12. “Jesus Christ is both a name and a title.” Explain.
  13. How do Philippians 2:5-11 describe Jesus’ dual nature as both God and man?
  14. “Why would God become a man?”

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Jesus Christ Possesses the Names and Titles of God

  1. What is the strongest argument for the deity of Christ? What effect did it have on the Jewish authorities?
  2. What name of God most revered by the Jews did Jesus claim for Himself?
  3. In what parts of the Bible did Jesus used the term “ego eimi” of Himself as it can be used only of God?
  4. Why did the Jews try to stone Jesus in John 8:57-59?
  5. How did Mark in his Gospel interpret Isaiah 40:3?
  6. How did Paul in Romans 10:13 interpret Joel 2:32? How did Peter use Joel 2:32 in Acts chapter 2 to claim deity for Christ?
  7. How do John 10.30-33 prove that even Christ’s enemies recognized He was claiming deity?
  8. What is meant by the “Granville Sharpe construction”?
  9. What does Dr. Ernest Cadman Colwell of the University of Chicago say about why the indefinite article '”a”' cannot be used before '”God” in John 1:1?
  10. What does F. F. Bruce, an expert in biblical languages, say about the construction of John 1:1?
  11. How can Jesus be “God” and “with God” at the same time?
  12. How does The Way International interpret Jesus’ being the “Word”? What are the problems with their interpretation?
  13. The “first 18 verses of John is repeated about Jesus elsewhere in the Gospel or in other New Testament passages”. What are these passages?
  14. “Jesus and God are both called the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, in Scripture.” What are these Scriptures?
  15. How is “Kurios” used in the Old and the New Testaments?
  16. What is one reason the early Christians and Jews were persecuted?
  17. What are several clear examples in the Scriptures where Jesus is called “Lord” in the sacred sense?
  18. What are the five New Testament examples where prayer is offered to Jesus in heaven as Lord (or the Son of God)?
  19. “Paul used the same language and imagery in calling Jesus Lord that Isaiah used in the Old Testament of Yahweh (Jehovah).” Explain.
  20. The Jews who heard Jesus’ statements about the Sabbath considered His words blasphemy. Why?
  21. “The God of the Old Testament stated unequivocally that He alone is the Savior….Yet Scripture explicitly states that Jesus is also savior.” What are these Scriptures?
  22. How did Paul in Titus 2:10, 13, 3:4, 6 claim that Jesus is God?
  23. How do I Timothy 6:14-16 argue for Christ’s divinity?
  24. How do the following titles prove the claims for Christ’s divinity?
  • Judge
  • Light
  • Rock
  • Redeemer
  • The Lord Our Righteousness
  • Husband
  • Shepherd
  • Creator
  • Giver of Life
  • Forgiver of sins
  • The Lord our Healer
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Jesus Christ Possesses the Attributes of God
  1. “Just as God is omnipresent in a personal sense (Psalm 139:7; Proverbs 15:3), and thus is able to help, deliver, love, defend and meet His people's deepest longings and needs, so the New Testament describes Christ also as omnipresent.” Explain.
  2. How do Matthew 18:20, 28:20, Romans 8:9, Galatians 2:20, Ephesians 3:17, Colossians 1:27, Revelation 3:20 and 2 Corinthians 13:5 prove that Christ is omnipresent?
  3. What do we mean when we say that God is omniscient?
  4. How do John 2:24-25, 6:64, 16:30 and 21:17 prove that Christ is omniscient?
  5. What do Dr. John Walvoord and Thomas Schultz say about the omniscience of Christ?
  6. What do the Hebrew words “El Shaddai” mean?
  7. What does Dr. John Walvoord say about the evidence for the omnipotence of Christ?
  8. “Many passages in Scripture support Jesus' existing prior to His birth, not as a mere idea in the foreknowledge of God, but in actuality.” What are these verses?
  9. What do Exodus 3.14, Habakkuk 3:6 and Deuteronomy 33:26-27 say about the eternalness of God?
  10. What proofs are there that Christ is also eternal?
  11. What is “immutability”? What do Malachi 3:6, James 1:17, Psalm 33:11 and Isaiah 46:9-10 say about the immutability of God?
  12. If Jesus went through “human developmental changes”, how can He be immutable?
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Jesus Christ Possesses the Authority of God
  1. What one word does the New Testament use primarily for worship?
  2. What Scriptures show that Christ received worship by men? By angels?
  3. What do John 2:19 and 10:18 say about Christ’s power and authority to resurrect Himself?
  4. “Not only did Jesus claim the names, titles, and attributes of God, receive worship, and claim the authority to resurrect Himself, but He also spoke things that only God could rightfully speak.” What were these things?
  5. What did C.S. Lewis say about the choices people can have in viewing who Christ is?
  6. Enumerate the Old and New Testament references of names, titles and attributes demonstrating that Jesus and Yahweh are one:
  • YHWH (I AM)
  • God
  • Alpha and Omega (First and Last)
  • Lord
  • Savior
  • King
  • Judge
  • Light
  • Rock
  • Redeemer
  • Our righteousness
  • Husband
  • Shepherd
  • Creator
  • Giver of Life
  • Forgiver of sin
  • Lord our Healer
  • Omnipresent
  • Omniscient
  • Omnipotent
  • Pre-existent
  • Eternal
  • Immutable
  • Receiver of worship
  • Speaker with Divine Authority
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God Became Man in Jesus Christ
  1. What does Colossians 2:9 say about Christ being God and man?
  2. Recite Philippians 2:5-8.
  3. What is assumed by the statement that Jesus gave up His equality with God? The Greek word for “equality” comes from what root word?
  4. What does the Philippians passage teach about Jesus existing in two forms?
  5. What does the word “grasped” imply?
  6. “Jesus’ submission does not deny His essential equality with the Father and the Holy Spirit.” Explain using John 5:17, 18 and the illustration bybiblical commentator Leon Morris.
  7. To the Jews, what was the implication Jesus called God His own Father?
  8. Scriptures like Exodus 33:20; John 1: 18; 1 Timothy 6:16; l John 4:12, etc. state that “no one has seen God”. How was God “seen” in Exodus 33:23, Genesis 32:28 compared with Hosea 12:3-4, Genesis 32:30, Exodus 24:9, 2 Judges 13:22 and Isaiah 6:1-3, 5?
  9. “The New Testament teaches that God has been seen in time and history in the person of Jesus Christ.” Explain.
  10. What does the Greek term for “exact reproduction” mean according to Thayer?
  11. According to C.S. Lewis, “Why is God landing in this enemy-occupied world in disguise and starting a sort of secret society to undermine the devil?”
  12. What do the Greek words “teknon” and “huios” mean?
  13. The word “Son” was used of Jesus in what four ways?
  14. How was the term “Son of Man” used in the Old Testament? What about in the New Testament?
  15. “Christ used the title ‘Son of Man’ to reveal a divine figure.” Explain.
  16. “Christ used the title ‘Son of Man’ to reveal a human figure.” What were the three ways this title was used of Christ?
  17. What is the significance of Christ identifying Himself as the “Son of man” referred to in Daniel 7:13-14?
  18. According to Gleason Archer, why would the Messiah of necessity have two natures, human and divine?
  19. “That Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the second person of the Holy Trinity, is essential to the doctrine of the incarnation.” Explain.
  20. According to Boettner, what ideas do the terms “Father” and “Son” carry?
  21. According to Griffith Thomas, why is the term “Son of God” a title to deity?
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We Have the Witness of the Early Church
  1. What did the following church fathers say about the deity of Christ?
  • Polycarp
  • Ignatius
  • Irenaeus
  • Justin Martyr
  • Clement
  1. Could these documents by these church fathers have been forged?
  2. Could Scriptures have been tampered with?
  3. Why did Arius’ denial of the deity of Christ become a major theological issue within the church?
  4. What was the Council of Nicea?
  5. How did Arianism influence the church?
  6. What did Mark Noll write about the Nicene Creed?
  7. Explain the following declarations of the Nicene Creed:
  1. What was the Council of Chalcedon?
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What Are Some Common Objections to the Deity of Christ?

How do you answer the following questions or objections to the deity of Christ?
  • The Father is Greater than I
  • God the Father Is the “Head” of Christ
  • Jesus Was Subject to the Father
  • Jesus Was “Begotten”
  • Jesus Was a Man
  • Jesus Was Called the First-Born of Creation
  • Jesus and God Were “One in Agreement”
  • Jesus Had Limited Knowledge
  • “No One Except God Is Good”
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Is Jesus Christ Your Lord?

“Many people through the centuries have experienced a similar struggle when confronted with Jesus’ question, ‘Who do you say that I am?’ We are faced with a trilemma.” Explain what this trilemma is all about using the diagram below.

For further explanation of the trilemma diagram, please read the books “Evidence That Demands A Verdict” (chapter 7) and “More Than a Carpenter” (chapter 2) by Josh McDowell.

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Saturday, August 21, 2010

Study guides for understanding secular religions (interim curriculum)

Click hereThe articles on secular religions fromUnderstanding Secular Religions by Josh McDowell and Don Stewart are part of the interim curriculum. We have prepared these study guides which you can use in two ways: (1) Read the study guide first so you can have an overview of the article; and (2) After reading the article, try answering the study guide questions to test your comprehension. Online, interactive quizzes on terms and definitions from world religions with automatic scoring are also available.

Index of study guides

  1. Atheism, Agnosticism, and Skepticism
  2. Marxism
  3. Secular Humanism
  4. Existentialism

Atheism, Agnosticism, and Skepticism
  1. Why should atheism, agnosticism, and skepticism be regarded as religions?
  2. What characterizes an atheist?
  3. How do William and Mabel Sahakian differentiate between an agnostic and an atheist?
  4. How does Bishop Charles Gore summarize atheistic belief?
  5. What are the two basic kinds of atheists according to Plato?
  6. How is agnosticism defined by William and Mabel Sahakian, the Runes Dictionary of Philosophy, and Peter Angeles’ Dictionary of Philosophy?
  7. What are the two types of agnostics according to William and Mabel Sahakian and Christian authors Norman Geisler and Paul Feinberg?
  8. What is skepticism according to the Runes’ Dictionary of Philosophy and Peter Angeles?
  9. How does Warren Young differentiate between skepticism and agnosticism?
  10. What were the different schools of Skepticism and their respective beliefs?
  11. Who were the “mitigated skeptics” and what did they believe in?
  12. Who was Rene Descartes and how did he view skepticism?
  13. Who were David Hume and Albert Camus? What were their thoughts about skepticism?
  14. Who was Niccolo Machiavelli and how was his social ethic related to atheism?
  15. Who were Georg W. F. Hegel, Ludwig Feuerbach, Auguste Comte, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Jaspers, Martin Heidegger and Jean-Paul Sartre? How did they influence atheistic thought?
  16. Who were David Hume, Immanuel Kant and T. H. Huxley? What were their contributions to agnosticism?
  17. The five types of arguments most non-theists use against the existence of God are languages, knowledge, moral concepts, scientific methods, and logic. Summarize each and then give a Christian refutation of each.
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  1. “Marxism, and its descendant, modern communism, presents a strong challenge to Christianity.” Explain.
  2. What is the impact and influence of Marxism based on Vincent P. Miceli’s observation in 1971?
  3. What is the quasi-religious nature of Marxism according to Encyclopedia Britannica?
  4. According to Thomas Kay, why can’t Christians remain silent about or, worse, embrace Marxism?
  5. Give some background information about Karl Marx. How did he come to write Das Kapital?
  6. What was Marx’s view of philosophy?
  7. Give some background information about Georg Wilhelm Hegel.
  8. What is dialectics?
  9. How did Marx’s view Hegel’s process of dialectics? What did Marx reject about Hegel’s dialectics?
  10. Who was Ludwig Feuerbach and how did he chape Marx’s ideas about religion? How did Marx modify Feuerbach’s ideas?
  11. How does William S. Sahakian summarize Marx’s attitude toward religion?
  12. “Marx saw two compelling reasons to abolish religion and promote atheism”. What are these reasons?
  13. How have some people tried to synthesize Marxism and Christianity?
  14. Who was Douglas Hyde and how did he become involved with Marxism? What caused his disillusionment with Marxism, as narrated in his book “I Believed”?
  15. Why does “absolute materialism lead to a form of practical totalitarianism” according to Thomas O. Kay?
  16. What is the “distinction between the goal and plan of Marxism and the goal and plan of Christianity”?
  17. “True freedom for mankind is possible only when the individual is considered valuable and when the root causes of injustice are removed.” Explain based on Miceli’s opinion.
  18. Give a general critique of Marxism.
  19. How is Marxism inadequate to meet men’s needs according to Michael Albert and Robin Hahnel, and Douglas Hyde.
  20. Give a short summary of each six economic/political themes of Marxism:
dialectical materialism
the four epochs of human history
economic “determinism”
the class struggle;
revolution (with a subsequent temporary proletariat dictatorship); and
the final “Utopia,” the classless society
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Secular Humanism

  1. What is secular humanism?
  2. How can secular humanism be defined based on the ancient Greek philosopher Protagoras?
  3. How does Peter Angeles in his “Dictionary of Philosophy” define philosophical humanism?
  4. Give a historical perspective of the modern secular humanism.
  5. What are the prominent secular humanist organizations?
  6. What is the Humanist Manifesto I? What are its 15 major themes or convictions?
  7. What is Humanist Manifesto II? How did World War II influence the need for a new manifesto? How is it different from Humanist Manifesto I?
  8. The 17 propositions of Humanist Manifesto II can be categorized into six groups: Religion, Philosophy, Mankind, Society, One-World Government, and Science. Give a short summary and a critique of each group.
  9. “Two of the most basic presuppositions of secular humanism are relative morals and the basic goodness of mankind”. How do you refute these presuppositions?
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  1. Why is existentialism difficult to define according to philosopher Walter Kaufmann?
  2. How do William and Mabel Sahakian describe existentialism?
  3. I. M. Bochenski, in his book “European Phi1osophy” relates six of the common existential themes. What are these themes?
  4. What is religious or Christian existentialism?
  5. Who was Sren Kierkegaard and why is he considered “the Father of Existentialism”?
  6. What are Kierkegaard’s main tenets according to William S. Sahakian?
  7. Why is Kierkegaard’s philosophy in opposition to that of the German philosopher Hegel?
  8. What is truth according to Kierkegaard?
  9. Who is Paul Tillich?
  10. What is anxiety from Tillich’s existential point of view?
  11. What is Tillich’s definition of God?
  12. What is Tillich’s existential interpretation to the concept of grace?
  13. Who is Gabriel Marcel? What are his ideas according to I. M Bochenski?
  14. Who is Martin Heidegger?
  15. “Heidegger did not view himself as an existentialist!” Explain.
  16. What is Heidegger’s concept of Dasein, angst and death?
  17. Who is Jean-Paul Sartre?
  18. Why does Sartre view life as being absurd?
  19. What are Sartre’s views about the autonomy and freedom of man?
  20. What did Sartre mean by “existence precedes essence”?
  21. According to Sartre, how could man receive his own self-fulfillment?
  22. What is forlornness according to Sartre?
  23. “Many people have embraced existentialism for a time, sincerely thinking that its view of life is accurate. However, many leave existentialism because it offers a solution, meaning, and commitment which is not truly satisfying. Even Sartre, toward the end of his life, swung very close to theistic commitment.” Explain.
  24. Who is Karl Jaspers?
  25. What is Jaspers’ philosophy according to Jean T. Wilde and William Kimmel?
  26. What are the differences between the existential philosophies of Jaspers and Sartre according to F. H. Heinemann?
  27. Why is existentialism not biblical Christianity according to philosopher Hazel Barnes?
  28. According to Bochenski, what are the philosophical problems posed but not answered by the usual existential concepts?
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Thursday, August 19, 2010

Study guides for world religions and cults (interim curriculum)

Click hereThe articles on world religions and cults fromHandbook of Today’s Religion by Josh McDowell and Don Stewart are part of the interim curriculum. We have prepared these study guides which you can use in two ways: (1) Read the study guide first so you can have an overview of the article; and (2) After reading the article, try answering the study guide questions to test your comprehension. Online, interactive quizzes on terms and definitions from world religions with automatic scoring are also available.

Index of study guides

  1. What is a Cult?
  2. The Characteristics of Cults
  3. The Beliefs of Orthodox Christianity
  4. Hare Krishna
  5. Jehovah's Witnesses
  6. Mormonism
  7. Transcendental Meditation
  8. Theosophy
  9. EST
  10. The Unification Church/“Moonies”
  11. Christian Science
  12. Unity
  13. Astrology
  14. Hinduism
  15. Jainism
  16. Buddhism
  17. Confucianism
  18. Taoism
  19. Shintoism
  20. Zoroastrianism
  21. Judaism
  22. Islam
  23. Sikhism
  24. The Authority of the Believer

What is a Cult?

  1. What is a cult?
  2. What does 2 Corinthians 11: 13-15 say about false prophets and teachers?
  3. What is Walter Martin’s definition of a cult?
  4. Why do cults prosper according to Martin?
  5. What are the three basic reasons why people join cults?
  6. What are man’s basic questions?
  7. Which individuals are particularly susceptible to cults?
  8. What do Robert and Gretchen Passantino say about how cults meet the emotional needs of people?
  9. What does Pierre Berton in his book “The Comfortable Pew” say about how “Christians have sometimes failed to be a vital influence in the world?”
  10. How do Victor Paul Wierwille, leader of the cult “The Way International” and members of the Jehovah’s Witnesses try to win people?
  11. What does Chris Elkins, a former Unification Church “Moonie” member, say about majority of cult members having been members of a mainline, denominational church?
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The Characteristics of Cults
  1. What are the nine characteristics of cults?
  2. What is Sun Myung Moon’s claim about the mission of Christ?
  3. What does the Mormon Church claim about Christianity and its founder Joseph Smith?
  4. What did Herbert W. Armstrong claim about the historic beliefs and interpretations of Scripture?
  5. To the Mormons, what are the sacred books which they consider as greater authoritative sources?
  6. What is the source of authority for Christian Science? For the Unification Church?
  7. What is the one characteristic that is found in all cults?
  8. What does the Bible makes clear about Jesus?
  9. Why is the Jesus of the Bible not the Jesus of the Jehovah’s Witnesses? Of the Mormon Church?
  10. What did Helena P. Blavatsky, founder of Theosophy and Joseph Smith, Jr., the founder of Mormonism, say of orthodox Christianity?
  11. What is another characteristic of all non Christian cults with regards the doctrine of the Trinity?
  12. What are the claims of the Jehovah’s Witnesses and The Way International with regards the Trinity?
  13. “Cult doctrines are continually in a state of flux and have no sure foundation on which to anchor their hope.” Explain using the examples of the Jehovah’s Witnesses (vaccinations, blood transfusion, the 144,000 witnesses) and the Mormon Church (polygamy).
  14. What are the consequences and effects of strong leadership in the cults?
  15. What is the one teaching that is totally absent from all the cults?
  16. What was Herbert W. Armstrong’s prophecy in 1967 that failed to come true?
  17. What were the predictions of Charles T. Russell, founder and first president of the Jehovah’s Witnesses, about the end of the world in 1914?
  18. What is the sure mark of a cult?
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The Beliefs of Orthodox Christianity
  1. “When it comes to the matter of final authority there is agreement among the major branches of Christianity with regard to the divine inspiration of the Old and New Testaments.” How does Roman Catholicism go beyond the Bible as its source of authority? What about the Eastern Orthodox church?
  2. What does the Lutheran formula of Concord say about the authority of the Old and New Testaments?
  3. What do 2 Timothy 3:16, 2 Peter 1:20-21, Deuteronomy 4:2 and Revelation 22:18-19 say about the Scriptures being standard and final authority on all matters of doctrine, faith and practice?
  4. What does the Westminster Shorter Catechism (Question 6) say about the Godhead?
  5. What does the Athanasian Creed say on the doctrine of the Trinity?
  6. “The facts of the biblical teaching are these: There is one God. This one God has a plural personality. This one God is called the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit, all distinct personalities, all designated God. We are therefore led to the conclusion that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are one God, the doctrine of the Trinity.” What do Deuteronomy 6:4, 1 Timothy 2:5, Isaiah 44:6 say about there being one God and only one God? What do Genesis 1:26, Genesis 3:22, John 13; Colossians 1:15; Hebrews 1:2 say about God’s plural personality? What do Galatians 1:1, John 1: 1, 5:8 and Acts 5:3-4 say about the names of God?
  7. What analogy does Dr. John Warwick Montgomery use to explain the Trinity?
  8. How do Luke 2:52, Matthew 4:2, John 4:6, Matthew 8:24, John 11:35 and John 11:33 prove that Jesus was human?
  9. What were the divine claims that Jesus made in John 1:1, John 14:9, John 5:18, Titus 2:13 and John 13:19?
  10. Some of the works attributed in the Bible to Christ are attributed as well as to God. What are these according to (a) John 1:3, Colossians 1:6, Hebrews 1:10; (b) Colossians 1:17, Hebrews 1:3; (c) I Corinthians 10:1-11; (d) Mark 2:5-12, Colossians 3:13; (e) John 10:28, 1 John 5:10; (f) John 11:25, John 5:21, 28, 29; and (g) John 5:22, 27, Matthew 25:31-46, 2 Corinthians 5:10?
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Hare Krishna
  1. How did the Hare Krishnas (International Society for Krishna Consciousness or ISKCON) originate?
  2. What is Vishnuism?
  3. What is universal monism?
  4. How is Krishnaism different from philosophical Hinduism?
  5. How did Krishnaism come to the United States?
  6. What is the difference between the God of the Bible and that of ISKCON?
  7. What is ISKCON’s view of Jesus Christ?
  8. According to ISKCON, what series of works must a person do to earn salvation?
  9. What are crucial for salvation in ISKCON?
  10. How is salvation in Hare Krishna related with the Hindu concept of karma?
  11. Why is the idea of karma and reincarnation anti-biblical?
  12. Define the following terms:
  • Prabhupada, A. C. Bhaktivedanta
  • Back to Godhead
  • Bhakti Yoga
  • Karma
  • Karmis
  • Laksmi
  • Mantra
  • Nirvana
  • Paramatma
  • Sankirtana
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Jehovah’s Witnesses
  1. What is the official name of the Jehovah’s Witnesses?
  2. What is the origin of the Jehovah’s Witnesses?
  3. Who were Joseph F. Rutherford and Nathan Knorr?
  4. What cardinal beliefs of historic Christianity does the Watchtower deny?
  5. What are the Watchtower’s claims for itself?
  6. What did Charles Taze Russell claim about the Watchtower’s “Scripture Studies”?
  7. How do the members of the Watchtower “misuse the Scriptures to establish their own peculiar beliefs”?
  8. What is the Watchtower’s stand on the Trinity?
  9. “In the theological system of the Watchtower, who is Jesus Christ?”
  10. What is Arianism?
  11. According to the Watchtower, what is the relationship between Michael the Archangel and Jesus Christ?
  12. How does the Watchtower use John 14:28 to prove that Christ is less than God?
  13. How does the Watchtower use Revelation 3:14 to prove that Christ is a created being?
  14. Citing Trench, Bruce Metzger, Lightfoot, Wordsworth and A. T. Robertson, how can you disprove the Watchtower’s claim that Christ is a created being?
  15. How does the Watchtower use Proverbs 8:22 to prove that Christ is a created being?
  16. According to the Watchtower, what is the meaning of “firstborn” in Colossians 1:15?
  17. How was the term “firstborn” used in the Mosaic Law? What are the metaphorical or figurative uses of the term “firstborn” in the Old Testament?
  18. How is the term “firstborn” used in Genesis 49:3, Romans 8:29, Colossians 1:6, Hebrews 12:23 and Revelation 1:5?
  19. How does C. S. Lewis explain the difference between the concepts of begetting and creating?
  20. How does the Watchtower try to substantiate its doctrine of Christ being one of the creation in the New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures rendering of Colossians 1:16-17?
  21. What is the Watchtower’s view of the Holy Spirit? How does it use John 14:26 and Ephesians 4:30 to bolster its belief?
  22. What is the Watchtower’s doctrine of salvation?
  23. What are the four reasons why the Watchtower rejects the doctrine of hell?
  24. What are some of the Watchtower prophecies that have failed to come true?
  25. What was the Watchtower’s rationale for its publication of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures?
  26. What is the grammatical explanation given by the Watchtower for its translation of John 1: 1?
  27. How does the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures translate John 8:58?
  28. How does the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures translate Colossians 1:16-17, 20?
  29. Define the following terms:
  • Annihilation
  • Arius
  • Christadelphians
  • Little Flock
  • Michael the Archangel
  • Nathan Knorr
  • New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures
  • Russell, Charles Taze
  • Rutherford, Judge J. F
  • The Awake
  • The Truth That Leads to Everlasting Life
  • The Watchtower
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  1. Give some background information about Joseph Smith, Jr.
  2. What was Joseph Smith, Jr.’s first vision in 1820 all about?
  3. What was Joseph Smith, Jr.’s second vision in September 21, 1823 all about?
  4. What persecutions did the Mormons face in their early days?
  5. How did Joseph Smith, Jr. die? What happened to the Mormons after he died?
  6. What do the Mormons claim about their church?
  7. What does Dr. Walter Martin in his book “The Maze of Mormonism” say about Joseph Smith Jr.’s first vision?
  8. What are the four sacred works accepted by the Mormons as their sources of authority?
  9. How do Hebrews 1:1-3 contradict the Mormons’ reliance on multiple contradictory revelations?
  10. What is the Mormon doctrine of God?
  11. What did Mormon writer Milton Hunter say about God having been once a mortal man?
  12. “Smith’s teaching on the nature of God not only contradicts the Bible, it also contradicts the Book of Mormon!” Explain.
  13. What do Isaiah 43:10 and 1 Corinthians 8:4 say about the true nature of God?
  14. How do the Mormons view Jesus Christ?
  15. What is man according to the Mormons?
  16. Contrary to Mormon theology, what do John 1:14 and Colossians 1:15 say about Christ?
  17. “Thus in Mormonism there is a general salvation for all mankind and an individual salvation for each person.” Explain.
  18. What did Brigham Young in his “Journal of Discourses” claim about Joseph Smith Jr. and himself as to the way to salvation?
  19. What do Ephesians 2:8-10 say about salvation?
  20. How many changes have there been in the Book of Mormons since 1830?
  21. How does archeology disprove the claims of Mormonism?
  22. What are some of the anachronisms and historical inaccuracies in the Mormon scriptures according to Dr. Gleason Archer?
  23. Why is the “Book of Abraham”, part of the Mormon scripture known as “The Pearl of Great Price” a fraud?
  24. What are some of the false prophecies of Mormonism?
  25. What are the two best tests of a self-proclaimed prophet according to Deuteronomy 13:1-4 and 18:18-22?
  26. Define the following terms:
  • Aaronic Priesthood
  • Adam - God
  • Apostles
  • Atonement
  • Baptism for the Dead
  • Book of Abraham
  • Book of Mormon
  • Celestial Heaven
  • Cumorah
  • Doctrine and Covenants
  • High Priests
  • Lamanites
  • Living Prophets
  • Lucifer
  • Manuscript Found
  • Melchizedek Priesthood
  • Moroni
  • Nephites
  • Patriarch
  • Pearl of Great Price
  • Presiding Bishopric
  • Smith, Joseph Jr. (1805-1844)
  • Telestial Kingdom
  • Terrestrial Kingdom
  • Young, Brigham

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Transcendental Meditation
  1. Give some background information about Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.
  2. What are the claims of TM?
  3. Is TM really a neutral discipline?
  4. What is the Puja? How is the religious nature of TM shown by the Puja?
  5. Why did a New Jersey federal court in 1977 bar the teaching of TM in the schools?
  6. Harold Bloomfield, meditator and psychiatrist, claims that TM is harmless. How is this claim disputed by some authorities?
  7. What are some of the disturbing statements made by the Maharishi regarding the Science of Creative Intelligence and the Age of Enlightenment?
  8. What is the Maharishi’s view of God?
  9. What is the Maharishi’s view of Jesus Christ?
  10. Is there a Christian alternative to TM?
  11. Define the following terms:
  • Transcendental Meditation
  • American Foundation for the Science of Creative Intelligence
  • Brahmins
  • Guru Dev
  • International Meditation Society
  • Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
  • Mantra
  • Prana
  • Puja
  • Sanatana dharma
  • Students International Meditation Society
  • TM
  • Vedas
  • Yoga
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  1. What does Theosophy mean? How did it start?
  2. What is the source of authority in Theosophy?
  3. What are the teachings of Theosophy with regards God?
  4. What are the teachings of Theosophy with regards man?
  5. What are the teachings of Theosophy with regards Jesus Christ?
  6. What are the teachings of Theosophy with regards reincarnation?
  7. What are the teachings of Theosophy with regards the afterlife?
  8. What are the teachings of Theosophy with regards the Bible?
  9. Define the following terms:
  • Theosophy
  • Adept
  • Animal Soul
  • Atlantean
  • Besant, Annie
  • Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna
  • Devachan
  • Devas
  • H.P.B.
  • Koot Hoomi
  • Kidshnamurti
  • Leadbeater, C. W
  • Mahatma
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EST (Erhard Seminars Training)
  1. Give some background information about Werner Erhard, founder and director of EST?
  2. What does EST consist of?
  3. According to EST, “Wrong is actually a version of right. If you are always wrong you are right.” Explain.
  4. What is at the heart of the ESTian world view?
  5. What did Erhard say about belief in God?
  6. What are Erhard’s claims about Jesus Christ? How do John 8:24, Mark 7:21-23 and Philippians 2:10-11 dispute these claims?
  7. Define the following terms:
  • The Centers Network
  • EST
  • Erhard, Werner
  • Games
  • Trainers
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The Unification Church/ Moonies
  1. Give some background about Sun Myung Moon and how he founded the Unification Church.
  2. Why does Sun Myung Moon believe himself to be the Messiah?
  3. What is the source of authority of the Unification Church?
  4. What is the Divine Principle?
  5. How do Isaiah 40:8, Matthew 24:35, Deuteronomy 4:2, Jude 3 and Revelation 22:18 disprove the Divine Principle?
  6. What is Moon’s concept of dualism?
  7. What does the Unification Church believe about the fall of man?
  8. What does the Unification Church believe about the coming of Christ?
  9. What does the Unification Church believe about John the Baptist?
  10. What does the Unification Church believe about the person of Christ?
  11. What does the Unification Church believe about the death of Christ?
  12. How does Acts 4:12 disprove Moon’s claim that he is the Messiah?
  13. Define the following terms:
  • Unification Church
  • Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (CARP)
  • Lord of the Second Advent
  • Master Speaks
  • Moon, Sun Myung
  • Moonies
  • New Hope Singers International
  • The Divine Principle
  • True Father and True Mother
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Christian Science
  1. Give some background information about Mary Baker Eddy and how she founded Christian Science.
  2. What lost element of Christianity does Christian Science claim to have restored?
  3. What is Christian Science’s source of authority?
  4. What is Christian Science’s two creation account theory of Genesis?
  5. What did Mary Baker Eddy claim about her own work “Science and Health”?
  6. Who was Phineas Quimby and what was his connection to Christian Science?
  7. What is the Christian Science view of God?
  8. How do Acts 17:24-25 disprove Christian Science’s pantheistic view of God?
  9. What is the Christian Science view of Christ? How do Luke 2:11, 1 John 2:22, and I John 5:1 disprove this view?
  10. What is the Christian Science view of salvation?
  11. What is the Christian Science view of evil? How do 1 John 5:19, Hebrews 9:22 and Galatians 1:4-5 disprove this view?
  12. “Christian Science is neither Christian nor scientific.” Explain.
  13. Define the following terms:
  • Animal Magnetism
  • At one ment
  • Christian Science Journal
  • Christian Science Monitor
  • Christian Science Sentinel
  • Eddy, Mary Baker
  • Immortal Mind
  • Mortal Mind
  • Quimby, P.P
  • Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures
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  1. Give some background information about Charles and Myrtle Fillmore and how they founded the Unity School of Christianity.
  2. “The basic world view of Unity is that of gnosticism”. Explain.
  3. What is Unity’s belief about the Bible? How do 2 Timothy 3:16 and 1 Thessalonians 2:13 disprove this view?
  4. What is Unity’s belief about God and how is it similar to that of Christian Science and other Gnostic cults?
  5. What is Unity’s belief about Jesus Christ? How do John 1:1, 14, 5:18-23, Colossians 1:15 and Hebrews 1:3 disprove this view?
  6. What is Unity’s belief about salvation? How do Romans 3:23, 6:23 and John 8:24 disprove this view?
  7. What is Unity’s belief about reincarnation? How do 1 John 1:8-10 and Acts 3:18-19 disprove this view?
  8. What is Unity’s belief about prosperity? How do Philippians 4:11-13, 19 disprove this view?
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  1. What are the two of the most crucial questions that haunt humanity?
  2. What does astrology believe about the effect of the position of the stars and planets?
  3. How does a person’s horoscope charted according to Rene Noorbergen?
  4. What is an ephemera and how is it used in astrology?
  5. How do astrologers justify their practice according to Michael Van Buskirk?
  6. According to astrologers, the stars “both impel and compel”. Explain.
  7. What did 186 prominent American scientists, along with 18 Nobel Prize winners, in September 1975 say about the claims of astrologers?
  8. “Astrologists are victims of their own system.” Explain.
  9. How is the problem of authority in astrology revealed?
  10. What is the “geocentric theory” and how is it related to astrology? How does the “heliocentric theory” disprove astrology?
  11. “Most astrological charts are based upon the assumption that there are seven planets in our solar system (including the sun and the moon).” Why is this wrong and how does this disprove the claims of astrologers?
  12. How do twins disprove the claims of astrology?
  13. What is the problem of “limited perspective” in astrology and how does it affect, for example, people living in Alaska, Norway, Finland and Greenland?
  14. What did Paul Couderc, astronomer at the Paris Observatory, conclude after examining the horoscopes of 2,817 musicians?
  15. “Horoscopes are cast from the time of birth, not from the time of conception.” Why is this a problem with astrology?
  16. “Astrology is unscientific because of the fact of the precession or the shifting of constellations.” Explain.
  17. What do Isaiah 47: 13-15, Jeremiah 10:2 and Deuteronomy 4:19 say about relying on astrologers and astrology?
  18. What do Daniel 1:20 and 2: 27-28 prove about astrologers and those dedicated to the true and living God?
  19. What are the two dangers of astrology?
  20. What is numerology and how is it related to astrology?
  21. “If astrology is both unscientific and unbiblical, why do so many people believe in it?”
  22. What did Time Magazine in its March 21, 1969 issue observe about astrologers?
  23. “The person who seeks advice from an astrologer comes with a certain readiness to believe the horoscope. This predisposition leads to an autosuggestion to order his life according to the horoscope, and thus contribute to its fulfillment.” How do Wilson and Weldon illustrate this point?
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  1. “Hinduism is not one religion, but rather a family of religions.” Explain.
  2. What are some of the complexities of Hinduism according to Joseph Gaer?
  3. Why is Hinduism tolerant of other religions?
  4. What materials comprise the Hindu scriptures?
  5. What are the Vedas?
  6. What are the Upanishads?
  7. What are the Ramayana and the Mahabharata?
  8. What is the Bhagavad-Gita?
  9. What is the Hindu concept of Brahman?
  10. What is the Hindu concept of Maya?
  11. What is the law of karma?
  12. What is the Hindu concept of Samsara?
  13. What is the origin of the caste system? What are the different castes?
  14. “Salvation, for the Hindu, can be achieved in one of three ways: the way of works (karma marga), the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion (bhakti).” Explain each way.
  15. Why do the Hindus revere the cow and consider it a possessor of great power?
  16. Compare Hinduism and Christianity in terms of views about God, man, sin, salvation, and the world.
  17. Define the following terms:
  • Agni
  • Atman
  • Bhagavad-Gita
  • Brahma
  • Brahman
  • Brahmin (or Brahman)
  • Darhma
  • Ganesa
  • Hanuman
  • Indra
  • Karma
  • Kzishna
  • Lakshma
  • Mahabhamta
  • Maya
  • Moksha
  • Parvati
  • Puranas
  • Ramayana
  • Rishi
  • Samsara
  • Sarasvati
  • Soma
  • Upanishads
  • Varuna
  • Veda
  • Vishnu
  • Yoga
  • Yogi
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  1. Hinduism gave birth to what three religious factions?
  2. Give some background information about Jainism’s founder Mahavira.
  3. Herbert Stroup lists six differences between Hinduism and Jainism: (1) law of karma; (2) rebirth; (3) caste system; (4) priestly caste; (5) doctrine of God; and (6). Explain each difference.
  4. What is Jainism’s concept of God?
  5. How do Mahavira’s later followers regard him?
  6. According to Jainism, salvation or liberation could be achieved only by ascetic practices. What are these ascetic practices known as the “Five Great Vows”?
  7. Why should monks avoid women entirely?
  8. What is the Jainism practice of non-violence or ahimsa? How is this practice related to vegetarianism and farming?
  9. What is an anga?
  10. Why are most Jains wealthy?
  11. What are the differences between Jainism and Christianity in terms of (1) salvation; (2) concept of God; (3) source of authority; and ability to meet universal human need?
  12. How did Griffith Thomas sum up the universal appeal of Christianity?
  13. According to Robert E. Hume, what are the areas of agreement and disagreement between Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism?
  14. Define the following terms:
  • Ahimsa
  • Digam baras
  • Five Great Vows
  • Jains
  • Jina
  • Mahavira
  • Nirgrantha
  • Sallakhana
  • Shvetambaras
  • Sthanakvasis
  • Tirthankaza
  • Twelve Angas
  • Venerable One
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  1. What is Buddhism’s link to Hinduism?
  2. Give some background information about Siddhartha Gautama.
  3. What is the Great Renunciation?
  4. How did Siddhartha Gautama achieve enlightenment and became the Buddha?
  5. What are the four Noble Truths?
  6. What is the Eightfold Path?
  7. Why is the veneration of Buddha by his followers after his death against the basic teachings of Buddha himself?
  8. What are the origins of and differences between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism?
  9. What is the Buddhist concept of Nirvana?
  10. What are the sacred Scriptures of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism?
  11. In Buddhism, how can the laity gain religious merit?
  12. What are the five precepts that all Buddhists should follow? What are the other precepts that apply only to monks and nuns?
  13. What are the 14 fundamental Buddhistic beliefs according to Colonel H. S. Olcott, one of the founding presidents of the Theosophical Society?
  14. What is Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism? How did it start?
  15. What is the Lotus Sutra?
  16. What is the “gohonzon”?
  17. What is “Shakubuku”?
  18. What is Zen Buddhism and how did it start?
  19. Who is Bodhidharma?
  20. What is satori?
  21. What is zazen?
  22. What is a koan?
  23. What is Huston Smith’s evaluation of Zen Buddhism?
  24. What are the differences between Buddhism and Christianity in terms of (1) monism; (2) sin; and (3) man?
  25. Define the following terms”
  • An-Atta
  • Bhikkhu
  • Bodhi
  • Bodhisattva
  • Buddha
  • Buddhism
  • Dalai Lama
  • Dhamma
  • Dukkha
  • Gohonzon
  • Heart Sutra
  • Koan
  • Mahayana
  • Maya
  • Nirvana
  • Pitaka
  • Pure Land
  • Pure Land Buddhism
  • Samsara
  • Sangha
  • Satori
  • Soka Gakkai
  • Stupas
  • Theravada
  • Tibetan Buddhism (Lamaism)
  • Tripitaka
  • True Sect of the Pure Land
  • Vinaya
  • Zazen
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  1. Give some background information about Confucius.
  2. What was China like before Confucius?
  3. Trace the progress which led to the deification of Confucius.
  4. Who is Meng-tzu (Mencius)?
  5. What is the basic nature of man according to Confucianism (as clarified by Mencius)? How did Mencius use the natural flow of water to illustrate the potentiality of the basic nature of man?
  6. Who is Lao Tzu (Lao-Tze)? What happened in his meeting with Confucius?
  7. What are the Five Classics? Give a short summary of each.
  8. The teachings of Confucius are contained in four books written by his followers. What are these books? Give a short summary of each.
  9. What is ancestor worship? What are the motives for such practice according to Richard C. Bush?
  10. What is filial piety?
  11. “Confucianism’s doctrines can be summarized by six key terms or ways. Jen is the golden rule; Chun-tzu the gentleman; Cheng-ming is the roleplayer; Te is virtuous power; Li is the standard of conduct; and Wen encompasses the arts of peace.” Explain each term.
  12. The Book of Analects contains the ethical teachings of Confucius. Give some examples of such teachings.
  13. What are Confucius’ teachings about life, death, heaven, etc?
  14. Is Confucianism an ethical system rather than a religion?
  15. How did Confucianism impact China, according to Huston Smith and Marcus Bach?
  16. What are the differences between Confucianism and Christianity?
  17. Define the following terms:
  • Analects, The
  • Ancestor Worship
  • Cheng Ming
  • Chun-tzu
  • Confucius
  • Feng Shui
  • Filial Piety
  • Five Classics
  • Four Books
  • Jen
  • Li
  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Mencius
  • Te
  • Wen
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  1. Give some background information about Lao-tzu.
  2. What are the teachings of the Tao Te King, also known as the Lao-tzu?
  3. How was the The Tao Te King supposedly written?
  4. Who was Chuang-tzu and what his contribution to Taoism?
  5. What are some of the highlights in the history of Taoism according to Robert E. Hume?
  6. What is the concept of the Tao?
  7. If mankind’s chief aim is to conform his existence to the way of the Tao, what must he do to accomplish this?
  8. What is the concept of the yin and yang?
  9. What does Richard C. Bush say about the broader concept of the yin and yang?
  10. Give some highlights of the following parts of the Tao Te King: Chapter I: The Tao That Can Be Trodden; Chapter LVI: He Who Knows the Tao; Chapter LXIII: It Is the Way;
  11. Chapter XXV: There Was Something; and Chapter LI: All Things.
  12. What are the differences between philosophical Taoism and religious Taoism?
  13. What are the weaknesses in Taoism according to Robert E. Hume in his book “The World’s Living Religions”?
  14. Why does Taoism have no real answer to the problem of evil?
  15. Define the following terms:
  • Chuang tzu
  • Lao-tzu
  • Tao Te King
  • The Tao
  • Wu Wei
  • Yin-Yang
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  1. How do John B. Noss and Clark B. Offner define Shintosim?
  2. Give some background information about the history of Shintoism (early development, revival, State religion).
  3. What is the Shinto notion of kami?
  4. What are the two sacred books of Shinto?
  5. What are the types of Shinto?
  6. What is worship like in Shinto?
  7. What are the differences between Shinto and Christianity?
  8. Why does Shinto find little acceptance in other places apart from Japan?
  9. Define the following terms:
  • Amaterasu
  • Bushido Code
  • Emperor Meiji
  • Harakiri
  • Hondon
  • Izanagi
  • Izanami
  • Jigai
  • Kami
  • Kami Dama
  • Ko-Jfi-Ki
  • Mikado
  • Nihon-Gi
  • O-Harai
  • Ryobu Shinto
  • Shintai
  • Shinto
  • Shinto Myth
  • State Shinto
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  1. Give some background information about Zoroaster. How was he later on deified?
  2. What is the present-day status of Zoroastrianism according to Richard Cavendish?
  3. Describe the Avesta (the sacred scripture of the Zoroastrians).
  4. Who is Ahura-Mazda and what are his characteristics?
  5. Who is Angra Mainyu (or Ahriman)?
  6. Both Ahura-Mazda and Angra Mainyu were given seven attributes (known as the Amesha-stentas). What are these attributes?
  7. What is Zoroastrianism’s concept of the future judgment?
  8. “Zoroastrianism has had a profound effect in shaping the doctrines of three major religions: Judaism, Islam and Christianity.” Explain.
  9. How do we refute the assertion that Zoroastrianism influenced Christianity? What are the incompatibilities between Zoroastrianism and Christianity?
  10. What practice has become a central rite in Zoroastrian worship?
  11. Define the following terms:
  • Ahura-Mazda
  • Amesba-Spenta
  • Angra Mainyu
  • Dakhmas
  • Fire Temple
  • Gabras
  • Vivedat (Venidad)
  • Vohu Manah
  • Yasna
  • Zend-Avesta
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  1. “To Christians, Judaism is unique among world religions.” Explain.
  2. Give some background information about the history of Judaism (from Abraham, Moses, the Promised Land, the Captivity, the Restoration, the Revolt, the Roman Rule and later history).
  3. Describe the land of Israel.
  4. Who was Moses Maimonides? What are the thirteen beliefs in his statement of faith?
  5. What are the Jewish holy Days? Describe each one.
  6. What are the three branches of modern-day Judaism? Describe each one.
  7. What is Judaism’s doctrine of the Messiah? What have been the changes in the doctrine the course of Jewish history?
  8. What is the orthodox Jewish concept of God according to Samuel Sandmel?
  9. “Jews do believe in the mercy of God but they do not believe in any substitutionary atonement that once and for all time cleanses them from all sin.” Explain.
  10. What is the Jewish concept of original sin?
  11. “Although there are marked differences in many areas of belief and practice between Judaism and Christianity, there is a common heritage that both religions share.” Explain.
  12. Define the following terms:
  • Diaspora
  • Gemarah
  • Hannukah
  • Midrash
  • Mishnah
  • Passover
  • Pentateuch
  • Pentecost
  • Purim
  • Rosh Hashanah
  • Seder
  • Sukkoth
  • Torah
  • Shofar
  • Talmud
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  1. What is Islam’s impact or influence in the world today?
  2. “The religion of Islam is one of the outstanding phenomena of history.” Explain.
  3. What is the origin of the word “Islam”?
  4. Give some background about Islam’s founder.
  5. What are the comments of the “Cambridge History of Islam” and Alfred Guillaume on Muhammad’s revelations?
  6. What was the Hijira and how did Mecca become the center of Islam?
  7. What divisions in leadership took place after the death of Muhammad?
  8. Who are the Sunnis, the Shiites and the Sufis? What distinguish them from each other?
  9. What is the impact of contemporary Islam in the Middle East and in the world according to Grunebaum and Neill?
  10. “The teachings of Islam are comprised both of faith (imam) and practice or duty (din).” Explain.
  11. What is Islamic law (Shari’a) and is its role in Islamic culture?
  12. “The controversy surrounding the law and theology and the fourfold division of the Shari’a led to the formulation and distinction of the Sunni and Shi'ite sects in Islam.” Explain.
  13. How does Kenneth Boa describe the central place of the Qura’n in the Islamic faith?
  14. What are the other sources of authority in Islam besides the Koran?
  15. Why does Islam reject the Christian New Testament?
  16. Describe the origin, structure, divisions and language of the Koran.
  17. What are the five articles of faith or main doctrines of Islam? Summarize each doctrine.
  18. What is Kismet or the doctrine of fate?
  19. What are the “five pillars of faith” of Islam?
  20. “Islam, like Judaism, is both a religion and a cultural identity which cannot be separated from the people. In many countries the Islamic faith, though not strictly practiced, is woven into the web of society at every facet.” Explain.
  21. How does the Arabic language serve as a unifying tool for Islam?
  22. What is the status of women in Islam?
  23. What are the differences in the beliefs between Islam and Christianity in terms of God, the Bible, Christ, sin and salvation?
  24. Define the following terms:
  • Abu Bakr
  • Allah
  • Caliph
  • Fatima
  • Hadith
  • Hafi
  • Hegira
  • Imam
  • Islam
  • Ka’Aba
  • Koran (Qur’an)
  • Mahdi
  • Mecca
  • Medina
  • Mohammad
  • Moslem (Muslim)
  • Mosque
  • Muezzlin
  • Omar
  • Purday
  • Ramadan
  • Salat
  • Shi’ites
  • Sufis
  • Sunnites
  • Surahs
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  1. Give a brief history of Sikhism and its founder Nanak.
  2. How did Sikhism develop after Nanak’s death?
  3. “The teachings of Sikhism are a syncretism of the doctrines of Islam and Hinduism.” Explain.
  4. What are the sacred scriptures of Sikhism?
  5. What is the Sikh belief about God and salvation?
  6. What are the points of agreement and disagreement between Sikhism and the Hinduism and Islamic doctrines according to Robert E. Hume?
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The Authority of the Believer
The five qualifications you must have to be able to be consistent in exercising the authority of the believer are:
  1. Knowledge
  2. Belief
  3. Humility
  4. Boldness
  5. Awareness
Explain each qualification.

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